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El Árbol en la Mitología Vasca

Desde Plinio, que situaba el espacio "Saltus Vasconum" entre los Pirineos, el mar y el "Ager Vasconum" de los cultivos agrarios, a Iparragirre, que ensalzaba a los montes y árboles señeros del país, la montaña y los bosques vascos han atraído a quienes se han acercado a ellos.

Como testimonio de un panteísmo milenario, en lápidas aquitanas de la época romana leemos las dedicaciones: Arixo deo, Artehe deo, Fago deo, Leheren deo, a los dioses Roble, Encina, Haya y Pino, en expresión vasco-latina cuya inteligencia respectiva es fácil a través del vasco actual haritz, art(h)e, pago y leher. Un habitante poderoso de los bosques era Basajaun, que llegó a tener réplica femenina en Zuberoa, con la presencia de Basandere.

Todavía en los albores de este siglo R. Mª Azkue recogía la frase ritual que dirigían los leñadores al árbol que iban a cortar: Guk botako zaitugu eta barkatu iguzu (nosotros te derribaremos y perdónanos).

Ese respeto y convivialidad con el árbol adquirió a través de los siglos carácter simbólico y representativo y de ahí la veneración otorgada a los robles de Gernika, Aretxabalagana y Arriaga, como protectores vivos de las Juntas de Bizkaia y Álava, que al amparo de aquellos robles se celebraban.

De entre todos los árboles singulares repartidos por toda la geografia vasca, "el árbol Malato" de Ayala merece especial mención. El origen de la singularidad del árbol Malato parte de la figura legendaria de Juan Zuria, hijo de un duendecasa y una infanta escocesa llegada a Mundaka. Fue elegido por los vizcaínos para, a su frente, expulsar a las tropas capitaneadas por un hijo del rey de León, que habían llegado hasta Bakio causando grandes estragos a su paso. Las tropas vizcaínas vencieron a las leonesas en la batalla de Padura, y las persiguieron hasta el árbol de Lujaondo, donde abandonaron la persecución. Estos hechos ocurrieron en el año 840, 870 u 880 según diferentes historiadores. Lo cierto es que, a partir de entonces, el árbol Malato era considerado faro o señal de la frontera militar del Señorío de Bizkaia. En 1603 el árbol ya no existía, por lo que en Juntas Generales se decide conmemorar el lugar donde estaba enraizado con una cruz de piedra y un letrero. El roble que ocupa en la actualidad el lugar del Malato es un ejemplar muy joven descendiente del Arbol de Gernika.

El haya, los robles y los fresnos han dado sombra y protección a ermitas y campas de reunión festiva y romería. En lo que se refiere al fresno, lizar, M. Lekuona recogía la siguiente expresión: Lizarra ez da bedeinkatu behar; berez da bedeinkatua (el fresno no hace falta bendecir; de por sí es bendito).

En ocasiones, son los arbustos los que adquieren protagonismo de salvaguarda ante adversidades atmosféricas, como el rayo y sus consecuencias u otras desdichas y adversidades. En este caso, los arbustos se unen a connotaciones de la vida y pasión de Jesucristo. Así los ramos de loro o laurel, ereino, erramu, propios del Domingo de Ramos, como en otros lugares fueran las palmas. Las pequeñas cruces de espino blanco o albar, elorri zuri, arantza zuri, cuyas espinas producen una punción dolorosa, que se asociaba a la ocasionada por la corona de espinas. Dichas pequeñas cruces, clavadas a puertas o en el suelo de los campos, debían proporcionar la protección necesaria frente a calamidades meteóricas. Los árboles de mayo, de la Ascensión y de San Juan son otras tantas representaciones simbólicas y protectoras. Normalmente se empleaban hayas o fresnos esbeltos, cogidos en bosques densos.

El fuego del hogar tenía frecuentemente carácter guardián ante maleficios y adversidades, como en otros lugares de Europa; así la tradición de xubilaro en la Baja Navarra. Olentzaro, Olentzero es otra representación, personificada en un carbonero báquico, que se ha sublimado recientemente en un Santa Claus o Papa Noël a la vasca, dadivoso y repartidor de regalos navideños.

 

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